By J. H. L. Playfair
Immunology at a look is designed to be a concise, with no trouble available creation and revision reduction for undergraduate clinical and technology scholars. Following the now regular, easy-to-use layout, every one subject is gifted as a double-page unfold with key evidence observed through clear,informative line diagrams illustrating the fundamental points.The 7th variation of this well known immunology textbook has been thoroughly up to date to make sure that center wisdom approximately immunology is summarized within the 'at a look' format.Immunology At a look will proceed to attract all scholars of biomedical technological know-how and drugs who desire a fast, but thorough grab of immunology. Condenses the topic into forty-one double-page spreads, each one corresponding approximately to a 50 minute lecture. provides a schematic diagram at the left web page and a concise clarification at the correct exhibiting the mechanisms keen on immunological methods. Has been thoroughly up-to-date with specific emphasis on fresh realizing of the genetic foundation of immune responses Immunology at a look will proceed to attract all scholars of biomedical technology and medication who desire a quickly, but thorough, snatch of immunology.
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Extra info for Immunology at a glance
A prominent feature of all stages is the many interactions between cells which are mediated mostly by cytokines (white arrows in the figure). There are also a number of regulatory influences whose relative importance is not yet clear. Most of these cell interactions occur in the lymph nodes or spleen, but antibody can be formed wherever there is lymphoid tissue. In a subsequent response to the same antigen, average affinity tends to be higher, precursor T and B cells more numerous and Ig class more varied.
However, there are exceptions to this tidy scheme, as described in Figs 26-29. , their serum immunoglobulin (Ig) rises towards the normal level of 10-20mg (or about 60 000 000 000 000 000 molecules) per ml. This shows that immunoglobulins are produced only as a result of stimulation by foreign antigens, the process being known as the antibody response. In the figure, these events are shown in a section through a stylized lymph node. Antigen is shown entering from the tissues (top left) and antibody being released into the blood (bottom right).
APC Antigen-presenting cell. Before they can trigger lymphocytes, antigens normally require to be presented on the surface of a specialized cell. This function is performed for B cells by follicular dendritic cells (FDC), and for T cells by interdigitating dendritic cells (IDC). Various dendritic cells in lymphoid tissue, Langerhans cells in the skin, etc. (see Fig. 7) can perform this function, part of which consists of releasing Interleukin- 1 (IL- 1) (see below) but which in the case of T lymphocytes also requires the presence of Class I1 MHC molecules on the APC.