By Philip Arestis, Peter Mooslechner, Karin Wagner (eds.)
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Extra info for Housing Market Challenges in Europe and the United States
Against the background of increased indebtedness we have lately seen a decrease in the mortgage spread (the spread between interest rates on loans and the cost of funding for Monetary Financial Institutions (MFIs), which may be due to increased competition. And, inter alia, increased competition in the housing (and mortgage) markets over the last years led to the introduction of new mortgage products that enabled borrowers to take a highly geared position. Mortgage loans are primarily used for housing investment.
And C. Whitehead (2004) Housing Tenure and Mortgage Systems: A Survey of 19 Countries, ENHR Conference, Cambridge, July, 2–6. Slacalek, J. (2006) What Drives Personal Consumption? The Role of Housing and Financial Wealth, German Institute for Economic Research DIW Berlin Discussion Paper, No. 647. , J. F. Tiemana (2002) The Housing Ladder, Taxation, and Borrowing Constraints, DNB Research Report No. 688, June 2002. Tsatsaronis, K. and H. Zhu (2004) What Drives Housing Price Dynamics: Crosscountry Evidence, BIS Quarterly Review, March 2004.
26). However, countries showing high ownership rates such as Spain or Italy are not among those countries with the highest developed mortgage markets. This is to say, there seem to be other reasons responsible for that – besides tax regulations and mortgage markets. g. more than a third of Italian households report that they got their home as a gift or bequest or that they got financial support when buying their home (Guiso and Jappelli, 1999). Scanlon and Whitehead (2004) conclude that younger households in most European countries tend to enter homeownership at a later period in their life than in former years because of higher house prices and greater access problems.