By Carol Lord
This paintings examines either old and comparative facts in documenting the sweep of diachronic swap within the context of serial verb structures. utilizing quite a lot of information from languages of West Africa, Asia and the Caribbean, it demonstrates how shifts in that means and utilization bring about syntactic, morphological and lexical swap. the method through which verbs lose lexical semantic content material and enhance case-marking capabilities is defined; it's argued that the switch is directional, from verb to preposition (or postposition) to hitch, alongside a grammaticalization continuum. This similar grammaticalization strategy is proven to lead to the advance of complementizers, adverbial subordinators, conjunctions, adverbs and auxiliaries from verbs. powerful parallels throughout languages are present in the meanings of the verbs that develop into “defective” and within the capabilities they arrive to mark. The alterations are documented intimately, with examples from a few languages illustrating the impression of the adjustments on typology and note order, implications for the encoding of definiteness and point, and the relevance of notions resembling discourse subject, foreground and transitivity. With appreciate to theoretical assumptions and terminology, the writer has taken a comparatively nonpartisan procedure, and the dialogue is obtainable to scholars of language in addition to of curiosity to theoreticians.
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It turns out that we have increased our understanding of the historical development of this particle not only by looking at the arguments it marks, but also by looking at the arguments it doesn't mark. 4 Conclusions Patterns in present-day Benue-Kwa languages suggest two general paths for grammaticalization of locative verbs. One direction is from verb to marker of incompleted aspect. Another is from verb to preposition, proceeding in some cases to prefix and to zero. Along the latter path, the preposition takes place noun objects, and may allow others such as time and manner objects as well.
Westermann does not mention anything unusual about na as a main verb. However, a grammar appearing 50 years later (Kozelka 1980:74) says that na appears infrequently as a main verb. , [Subject Verb Patient Recipient]). ' The data suggest that the Ewe verb na may be entering its decline: it appears infrequently as a main verb, and when it does it appears to allow nonstandard object ordering; in serial constructions, where it commonly functions as a Recipient/Benefactive marker, modern speakers no longer conjugate it.
Its many unmistakably verb-like characteristics suggest that its historical source was a verb. ' Zimmermann (1858) says it was formerly a verb meaning 'take'. If we regard ke as a defective verb in (112), its structure can be viewed as NP VP VP, with the verb status of ke in jeopardy.