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By Bibudhendra Sarkar

This article provides modern analytical ideas for the decision of heavy metals in air debris, water, soil and organic samples. It information experimental stories to minimize the occurance of affliction, remediate infected websites and determine applicable diversity of oral intakes (AROI) instructions.

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57. NRC. Science and Judgement in Risk Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academic Press, 1994. 58. WHO. World Health Organization: Assessing Human Health Risks of Chemicals: Derivation of Guidance Values for Health-Based Exposure Limits. IPCS Environmental Health Criteria 170. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1994. 59. WHO. World Health Organization: Principles for the Assessment of Risks to Human Health from Exposure to Chemicals. IPCS Environmental Health Criteria 210. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1999.

69. US EPA. Risk characterization: Practical guidance for National Center Environmental Assessment (NCEA)-Washington-Based Risk Assessors. NCEAW-0105. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency, 1996. 70. J Alexander, A Aro. In A Oskarsson, ed. Risk Evaluation of Essential Trace Elements—Essential Versus Toxic Levels of Intake. Stockholm: The Nordic Council, 1995, pp 15–65. 71. T Ma, J Gno, F Wang. Am J Clin Nutr 57(suppl 2):264s–266s, 1993. 72. JT Salonen, G Alfthan, JK Huttunen, J Pikkarainen, P Puska.

1 Deficiency Lethal Deficiency. Severe deficiency sometimes with lethal outcome may result from situations when individuals are completely devoid of the nutritional element in question. Such situations may lead to clinical disease and in extreme cases death such as in severe cases of myxedema that may occur in pronounced iodine deficiency (36). Severe iron deficiency may also lead to severe anemia with lethal outcome in rare cases (9). In China, Keshan disease, with myocardial abnormalities and sometimes death, may occur as a result of selenium deficiency, possibly in combination with viral disease (37,38).

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