By Zdenko Rengel
This instruction manual bargains powerful concepts to switch and alter crop creation strategies to diminish the toxicity of soil contaminants, stability soil pH, enhance root progress and nutrient uptake, and elevate agricultural yield. "The instruction manual of Soil Acidity" offers tips on how to, degree soil acidity, make sure the key motives of soil acidification, calculate acidification premiums for particular crop sequences, determine high-risk parts for soil acidification, and version acidification phenomena. this is often a vital source for plant, crop, soil, and environmental scientists; plant and crop physiologists; botanists, agronomists, agriculturists, and upper-level undergraduate, graduate, and continuing-education scholars in those disciplines.
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Additional info for Handbook of Soil Acidity (Books in Soils, Plants, and the Environment)
2. Uptake and Assimilation of Nitrogen Plants take up N in three main forms—as an anion (nitrate, NO3), as a cation (ammonium, NH ϩ 4 ), or as a neutral N2 molecule (N2 fixation, in legumes only). Depending on the form of N taken up and the mechanism of assimilation in the plant, excess uptake of cations or anions may occur [27–30]. To maintain charge balance during the uptake process, Hϩ, OHϪ, or HCOϪ 3 ions must pass out of the root into the surrounding soil. The Hϩ ions may be derived from the dissociation of organic acids within the cell and OHϪ ions from the decarboxylation of organic acid anions.
The process whereby NHϩ 4 is oxidized to yield NO 3 ions is referred to as nitrification. Simplistically, the process can be considered in two Ϫ Ϫ Ϫ steps: oxidation of NHϩ 4 to NO 2 and subsequent oxidation of NO 2 to NO 2 . The overall reaction can be expressed as follows [Eq. (9)]: Ϫ ϩ NHϩ 4 ϩ 2O2 → NO 3 ϩ H2O ϩ 2H (9) Both heterotrophic and autotrophic microorganisms are involved in the oxidaϪ tion of NHϩ 4 to NO 3 . Groups of autotrophic bacteria, Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter, have been considered the most important nitrifying microorganisms in many agricultural soils, but the importance of their role in pasture soils is not clear.
Sulfur in soil organic matter and plant litter is mainly present as sulfhydryl (MSH) groups in proteins, nucleic acids, and sulfolipids and bonded directly to C. Protons are produced during the mineralization and subsequent oxidation of S in soil organic matter [Eq. (13)]. 5O2 ϩ H2O → SO2Ϫ 4 ϩ 2H (13) As soil bacteria and fungi grow on plant litter and soil organic matter rich in C and poor in S, soil solution SO2Ϫ 4 may be immobilized. In this case, Eq. (13) is reversed and becomes a proton-consuming reaction as SO2Ϫ 4 is assimilated to microbial protein.