By Masahiro Tanimori
A useful reference for college students and students alike. half 1 explains and illustrates the makes use of of hundreds of thousands of debris, key vocabulary, and different functionality phrases. every one access contains many pattern sentences in eastern, romaji, and English. freed from dense grammatical jargon, half 2 presents concise overviews of all eastern components of speech, well mannered language (keigo), counters, and different elements of daily language.
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Extra info for Handbook of Japanese Grammar (Tuttle Language Library)
In Spanish the Spec of the highest Infl head is the landing site for all sorts of A'-movement: wh-movement, Focus movement, and fronting of those expressions that cannot be discourse topics. In Italian, by hypothesis, Focus movement and QP fronting target Spec-Foe, in which case a topic or a subject may intervene between the phrase in Spec-Foe and inflection: (48) Italian: (49) Spanish/Catalan/Romanian: Previousl y I suggested that whenever a subject or a topic is allowed to intervene between the wh-element and inflection in Italian, the wh-element is itself focalized, sitting in Spec-Foe.
ALGO debe haberte dicho Maria para que te hayas enojado tanto. ' b. *ALGO Maria te habra dicho para que te hayas enojado tanto. (38) a. Con NADIE compartio Maria su secreto. ' b. *Con NADIE Maria compartio su secreto. Under the assumption that there is only one A'-projection to the left of inflection, namely, the Spec of the highest Infl head, the left-adjacency requirement imposed on all kinds of A'-extraction is immediately accounted for without recourse to Infl raising. As a result of the configuration in (33), topics will always precede wh-phrases, foci, or nonspecific fronted QPs in matrix, as well as embedded, clauses.
Unlike Catalan, however, Romanian allows for VSO order. It is a well-known fact that the Romance languages vary in the position of postverbal subjects relative to other arguments (see Sola 1992 and Zubizarreta 1997 for an overview). This variation is not directly relevant, however. What matters for now is to show that in Romanian, as well as in Catalan, there is a subject position to the right of the verb. In both cases, the preverbal field is divided into the position that is adjacent to the verbal string, which is an A'-position and the recursive position for topics.