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By Henry Kamen

В книге рассматривается исторический период XVI-XVII вв. , который для Испании традиционно считается «Золотым веком» и, вместе с тем, остается наиболее проблематичным и вызывающим научные споры. Например - что подразумевается под «Испанией» в те годы, был ли век действительно «золотым»? и т. д. После анархии гражданских войн в Кастилии и Каталонии в конце XV в., с началом правления Фердинанда и Изабеллы (1474-1516), казалось, начиналось рождение современного государства. Правители успешно контролировали союз корон, была одержана победа над Гранадой – последним оплотом мусульман в Европе, произошло изгнание евреев, открытие Нового Мира. Испания распространила свою власть на юг Италии, контролировала часть африканского побережья и Атлантики. Успехи Испании вызывали восхищение и зависть всей Европы. Взойдя на престол как Карл I Габсбург, 16-летний внук Фердинанда присоединил к своим обширным владениям Нидерланды и другие австрийские земли, а в 1519 был избран императором Священной Римской империи и остался в истории уже под именем Карла V. Победа над турками в битве 1571 г. при Лепанто покончила с османским господством в Средиземном море и усилила престиж испанского флота в глазах европейцев. В 1580 г. к Испании была присоединена Португалия, а вместе с ней – все ее корабли и колонии в Америке, Азии и Африке. Испания стала великой океанской державой. Испанская армия, обагрившая кровью земли мятежных Нидерландов, внушала страх. В портах Нового Света трюмы тяжелых галеонов загружались слитками золота и серебра. Испанский этикет, язык, мода распространились к концу столетия при европейских дворах. XVI столетие в истории Испании — эпоха наивысшего расцвета огромной колониальной империи — было вместе с тем и веком великого разочарования. Испанское общество жило в плену обманчивых и зыбких иллюзии. Все имело относительный характер, и каждое явление — свою оборотную сторону.Образцы сканов:

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It has been argued with reason that the war effort of these decades cannot be written off simply by citing the defeat at Rocroi (1643), and that in 1652 there was an impressive display of strength with the recapture, on three distinct fronts, of Barcelona, Dunkirk and Casale [110]. Though the truly great territorial losses were still to come, there can be little argument that in the forty years after 1660 Spain lost any real capacity to maintain its international position and was truly ‘in decline’: the ‘imperial century’ simply ran out of steam.

Maravall has made a short study of the controversy and has identified it in some measure as opposition to the government [105]. The war, however, culminating as it did with the independence of the Dutch in 1648, had other profound and long-term reverberations: it brought to some a disenchantment with the dream of empire, and sparked off the literature of disillusion produced by arbitristas within Castile. As early as 1598 Alamos de Barrientos claimed to see ‘our realms defenceless, infested, invaded; the Mediterranean and Atlantic lorded over by the enemy; the Spanish nation worn out, prostrate, discontented and disfavoured; reputación and honour laid low’.

The elites of the monarchy looked forward to obtaining honour and status for themselves by serving in the armies and imperial administration of the crown. The best-known actions of the ‘Spanish’ army were the work of non-Spaniards. From the ‘Spanish’ victory of St Quentin in 1557 (won by a mainly Netherlandish army commanded by the nonSpaniards the duke of Savoy and the earl of Egmont) to the ‘Spanish’ defeat at Rocroi in 1643 (lost by a mainly NetherlandishGerman army commanded by a Portuguese general), the power of Spain was always determined by the contributions that could be made by its allies.

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