By A. J. P. Taylor
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Extra info for From Sarajevo to Potsdam
The English and the Dutch, who fought three wars between 1652 and 1674, conducted a naval race. In early 31 1652 the Dutch fleet had 76 ships, and in 1665-7 they built about another 60. The size of the French navy rose substantially in the 1660s and by 1688 the French had a fleet of 93 ships of the line. More important than these numbers were the increases in the size and power of their gunnery. Of the 27 warships built in the United Provinces in 1682-8, 7 were in the 90-gun class. In the following decade the Dutch built 78 ships of 36 guns and over, the English 69 and the French 74.
Fortunately for the regulars in April 1746 the Jacobites did not contest the passage of the Spey, but chose to fight at Culloden, on a battlefield that gave their Highland charge no advantages, after their plan for a surprise night attack on the British camp had miscarried . Atrocities and exactions marked numerous western and central European campaigns in which civilians were not involved. In part this may be attributed to the growing use of light cavalry, the Austrians employing the Hungarians they had raised initially against the Turks in the wars with France and Prussia.
Frederick II forcibly recruited Saxon prisoners again in 1756. Foreigners were often recruited. I talians moved to Spain or Austria, Germans to France, Austria and Russia. In a typical Dutch warship half of the sailors, two-thirds of the soldiers and a third of the petty officers were of foreign origin, mostly from the Empire, Denmark and Sweden.