By Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo, Aurora M. Nedelcu
The ebook integrates our figuring out of the criteria and procedures underlying the evolution of multicellularity via offering numerous complementary views (both theoretical and experimental) and utilizing examples from a variety of lineages during which multicellularity developed. fresh years marked an elevated curiosity in figuring out how and why those transitions happened, and information from a number of fields are offering new insights into the forces riding the various self sufficient transitions to multicellular lifestyles in addition to into the genetic and molecular foundation for the evolution of this phenotype. the final word target of this booklet is to facilitate the id of basic and unifying ideas and mechanisms.
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Extra resources for Evolutionary Transitions to Multicellular Life: Principles and mechanisms
Syst Biol 59(5):518–533. 1093/sysbio/syq037 Parfrey LW, Lahr DJG, Katz LA, et al (2011) Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(33):13624–13629. 1110633108 Parham JF, Donoghue PC, Bell CJ, et al (2012) Best practices for justifying fossil calibrations. Syst Biol 61(2):346–359. 1093/sysbio/syr107 Peterson KJ, Butterfield NJ (2005) Origin of the Eumetazoa: testing ecological predictions of molecular clocks against the Proterozoic fossil record.
Multicellularity has emerged several times over the evolution of eukaryotes. Uncertainty about several regions of the eukaryotic tree makes it difficult to date the origin of multicellular groups. 3. Relaxed Molecular Clock (RMC) methods allow the estimation of unknown divergence dates from phylogenetic trees with fossil calibrations, accounting for variation in rate of sequence evolution among lineages. There are several ways to model this variation across phylogenetic trees. 4. The fossils used to calibrate RMC models add another level of uncertainty to the dating of the emergence of multicellular groups, as the phylogenetic placement and age of fossils are uncertain.
1093/molbev/msm193 Levinton JS (2008) The Cambrian explosion: how do we use the evidence. Bioscience 58(9):855– 864. 1641/B580912 Loken C, Gruner D, Groer L, et al (2010) SciNet: lessons learned from building a power-efficient top-20 system and data centre. J Phys: Conf Ser 256(1). 1088/1742-6596/256/1/012026 Love GD, Grosjean E, Stalvies C, et al (2009) Fossil steroids record the appearance of Demospongiae during the Cryogenian period. Nature 457(7230):718–721. 1038/nature07673 Magallon S, Hilu KW, Quandt D (2013) Land plant evolutionary timeline: gene effects are secondary to fossil constraints in relaxed clock estimation of age and substitution rates.