By George Crawford
After manpower, power is the top working fee merchandise for many the wastewater utilities. over the past decade, the implementation of recent applied sciences to satisfy new effluent limits and water caliber criteria has significantly elevated strength intake via the sphere. the cost of power has additionally considerably elevated within the related interval. In North the USA and Europe, a few utilities have suggested major raises in strength expenditures lately, and with oil costs carrying on with to range, additional tremendous raises in working bills might be anticipated. these raises can be compounded via the necessity to meet extra new laws that would require energy-intensive therapy strategies to accomplish tight criteria. excessive power intake will impact the wastewater world wide and is inextricably associated with the problem of weather swap. via its Optimization problem software, the Water atmosphere study beginning (WERF) is at present engaging within the international Water examine Coalition's (GWRC) undertaking titled power potency within the Water undefined: A Compendium of most sensible Practices and Case experiences. the target of the GWRC venture is to increase a Compendium of most sensible perform (worldwide) within the energy-efficient layout and operation of water resources. For this venture, WERF is serving the function of North the USA wastewater perform coordinator. via this project, WERF intends to outline particular suggestions relating to: * Incremental advancements in power potency via optimization of present resources and operations * extra great advancements in power potency from the adoption of novel (but confirmed at complete scale) applied sciences As a part of the GWRC undertaking, WERF has constructed this file summarizing current details on well-established strength optimization/energy restoration most sensible practices, in addition to documenting a sequence of case stories of novel (yet full-scale confirmed) technologies/practices in wastewater therapy in essentially North the US
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Additional info for Efficiency in Wastewater Treatment in North America: A Compendium of Best Practices and Case Studies of Novel Approaches
1 Introduction The following sections document in a series of case studies novel (yet full-scale proven with at least one operating installation) energy optimization/energy recovery technologies or practices. Case study documentation follows the guidelines defined by Black & Veatch, the GWRC umbrella contractor, titled UkWIR Energy Efficiency Research Project CL 11, A Compendium of Best Practice and Case Studies, Final Document – Case Studies and Examples, Selection Criteria and Data Collection Guidance, Revision 3.
Standard induction motor efficiency increases with motor size and remains constant with variable load, generally varying by less than 5% over the possible load range. Power factor, however, does not remain constant with a reduction in load and can decrease by as much as 25% from full load to half load. As discussed above, electrical utilities can assess surcharges for low power factors, making it beneficial to match the motor to the load across the entire operating range. Motor and load matching can require complex economic evaluations in an evolving inductive electrical system, as loads change during the course of different timescales.
Although WWTFs apply various types of pumps, this document focuses on centrifugal pumps, which are the most commonly applied and, therefore, offer the greatest opportunity for energy savings. Similar to motor efficiency, pump efficiency is the ratio of the water power derived from the pump to the motor power input to the pump shaft. Pump efficiency varies considerably more than motor efficiency over the potential operating range of a pump. Figure 2-5 presents typical pump characteristic curves for a single impeller diameter.