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By Avijit Gupta

This entire moment variation presents an up to date creation to the character of ecological degradation in a global of dramatic environmental switch.

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Extra resources for Ecology and Development in the Third World (Routledge Introductions to Development)

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4 Development of water resources An introduction to hydrology Nature manages her water resources extremely efficiently with techniques for self-purification and for managing on a finite budget by recirculation of moisture. 1). About 97 per cent of Earth’s water is stored in the oceans in a saline form. Almost the entire amount of fresh water is locked frozen in Antarctica and Greenland. A significant amount of the remainder lies at a considerable depth in the subsurface. The water that is normally available to us comes from the atmosphere, the land surface and the shallow subsurface; and constitutes an extremely small part of the total water inventory.

2 billion and there was very little change in the number of people without proper sanitation (World Bank, 1992). Also, as before, tremendous disparities existed across countries. For example, almost all rural people in countries such as Malaysia or Mauritius have access to piped water, in contrast to the situation for many city dwellers in other countries such as Haiti or Congo. Large areas of the developing countries are still without safe drinking water or proper sanitation arrangements to prevent the pollution of water sources.

2 Pollutants of water: types, sources and effects Type Major sources Effects Sag in dissolved oxygen, OxygenSewage (animal and human), demanding industrial wastes (food processing harmful effects on most aquatic wastes plants, paper mills, oil refineries, organisms, foul odours tanning mills), runoff from agricultural lands, decaying vegetation Agents of Untreated domestic sewage and Spread of water-borne diseases, infectious animal wastes especially of gastro-enteritic diseases tract, polio, infectious hepatitis Plant nutrients Domestic sewage, industrial Algal bloom, excessive aquatic wastes, phosphorus from weeds, degraded taste and detergents, runoff from fertilized odour of water, oxygen fields, fossil fuel combustion depletion Synthetic Fuels, plastic, fibres, detergent, Possible toxic effect to aquatic Ecology and development in the Third World organic compounds paints, pesticides, herbicides, food additives, etc.

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