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By E. P. H. Best, J. Haeck (auth.), E. P. H. Best, J. Haeck (eds.)

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Extra resources for Ecological Indicators for the Assessment of the Quality of Air, Water, Soil, and Ecosystems: Papers presented at a Symposium held in Utrecht, October 1982

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Also the back-calculated length of 5-yr old bream of succeeding spawning years (1966-1976) increased (Slooff and De Zwart, 1983). , 1983b). From this study it can be concluded that field observations on one species can be used to indicate temporal and geographic differences in toxic stress in surface waters. Although it can be assumed that, in principle, every species and parameter is suitable for this purpose, this approach has several drawbacks. Leaving aside the rather high research costs and the problems related to whether or not standardization of species and parameters is desirable, most problems are related to the transformation ofthe obtained data into an acceptable water quality index.

Anal. Chem. 13,205-217. Poels, C. L. ), Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Aquatic Pollutants, pp. 479-480. Poels, C. L. M. and Strik, J. J. T. W. : 1975, 'Chronic Toxic Effects of the Water of the River Rhine upon Rainbow Trout', in Koeman, J. H. and Strik,J. J. T. W. A. ), Elsevier, Amsterdam, Sublethal Effects of Toxic Chemicals on Aquatic Animals, pp. 86-91. Poe1s, C. L. , Gaag, M. A. van der, and Kerkhoff, 1. F. L. van de: 1980, 'An Investigation into the Long-Term Effects of Rhinewater on Rainbow Trout', Water Res.

In fumigation experiments one can also investigate the influence of combinations of pollutants, which may lead to the discovery of synergistic effects. As in the field the presence of more than one pollutant will be the rule rather than the exception, bio-monitoring is an essential addition to chemical monitoring. Strange reactions of plants have been found as the first symptom of the presence of an (unknown) air pollutant. A classical example of this is the severe damage in Californian spinach fields in the fourties.

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