By Aurélie Névot
Los angeles relation maître-disciple « défie toute étude d’ensemble », a écrit George Steiner, tant elle se singularise par l. a. stress entre ses cadres multiples et son caractère precise. Socle de l’édifice social, elle s’incarne entre deux personnes, tout en constituant le médium de los angeles pensée en partage. C’est en multipliant les angles et en diversifiant les domaines où cette relation s’exerce que pareil phénomène peut être approché. Tel est le propos de cet ouvrage rassemblant philosophes, historiens et ethnologues. De l’Académie d’Athènes à l’enseignement dans les associations scolaires et universitaires en Europe contemporaine, de filiations spirituelles et musicales hindoues à des pratiques chamaniques de Chine, les auteurs s’interrogent sur les acteurs de l. a. transmission – orale ou livresque, parlée ou muette, gestuelle ou musiquante –, et l’intimité de ces « passeurs de query ». Confucius dit transmettre mais ne pas innover, tout en considérant que de l’ancien émane los angeles nouveauté ; Fichte fait du rapport maître-disciple los angeles situation de l’éclosion du savoir. Autant de occasions dans des civilisations et des temps différents qui déploient toutes les facettes de cette rencontre interpersonnelle. Autant d’occasions de mettre en lumière l. a. continuité, los angeles perdurance de l’objet à transmettre.Une réflexion stimulante sur un phénomène social mal connu : l. a. transmission du savoir.
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Extra resources for De l'un à l'autre : Maîtres et disciples
Man had before him a model of equilibrium in nature itself, an idea found also in the astronomy of the ancient Greeks. Gandhi's Religious Thought and Indian Traditions 19 Dharma stood for an ideal of society which should be noncompetitive, each man doing his proper work. The idea, moreover, focusses on duties not on rights. If this sounds out of date to modern ears it must also be noted that the defence of dharma involved the righting of injustices, the restoring of the balance which men in their ignorance or out of selfish passions had disturbed.
For him sacrifice means bread labour, which we came across earlier. To be detached from the fruits of action is not to abandon them. Simply because the contemplated action may go awry and unintended consequences follow, we need to be constantly on the alert. His conduct of successive satyagraha campaigns gives ample illustration of this. In human life the quest of perfection is an endless process. Not only Gandhi but everyone else would agree. The discussion of what perfection involves (going beyond the three guJ)as and reaching the state of a gu1}atzta) leads him to a curious line of reasoning to the effect that for us Krishna is not an exemplar: 43 If we believe Krishna to be God, we must impute to him omniscience and omnipotence.
36 We have to see the man as he is. I have so far stressed Gandhi's 'Hinduness', and we shall return to this. But it is also very necessary to be aware of the Jain elements in his mental make-up. These were pronounced enough for even Bal Gangadhar Tilak to have taken it for granted at one time that Gandhi was a Jain rather than a Hindu. Only the limitations imposed by the size this book has to conform to constrain me to mention very briefly and sketchily what these elements were. Jain influences in the Gujarat of Gandhi's time were very strong indeed.