By Keiko Hirata (auth.)
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Extra resources for Civil Society in Japan: The Growing Role of NGO’s in Tokyo’s Aid and Development Policy
As will be discussed later in the chapter, the leading actor of the coalition was the bureaucracy that planned and implemented economic policy in collaboration with politicians and the private sector. Japan’s state-civil society relations cannot be understood without scrutinizing the role of the coalition, especially that of the bureaucracy. Second, the developmental state in this study addresses not only the state’s leadership in economic policymaking but also the role of the Japanese people, who wholeheartedly supported regime-sponsored development policies.
Together, these factors have brought about contributed to profound structural and normative changes in Japan, contributing to the rise of Japanese civil society. Globalization Two aspects of globalization need to be examined: the acceleration of Japanese integration into the global economy and the acquisition of global norms and values. Globalization is a multifaceted phenomenon, which leads to economic, political, and cultural change. In Japan, globalization has challenged the structure of corporate-state cooperation as well as the traditional values that buttressed the developmental state.
Many citizens’ organizations found it impossible to meet this target, thus giving up acquiring incorporated status under the law and falling CIVIL SOCIETY AND NGOs IN JAPAN 23 into an incorporated (nonlegal) status that prevented them from gaining any type of tax exemption. Furthermore, even after the establishment of incorporated associations, the agencies maintained tight control over civic associations under their jurisdiction and were able to terminate the operations of these associations if they did not meet the standards set by the agencies.