By David Pimentel Ph.D.
Organic Invasions assembles particular info on parts of the invasive-species challenge from six continents. This quantity reconfirms the various and unpredictable roles that non-native species imagine as they invade new ecosystems: destruction of important vegetation and forests, significant damages to ecosystems resulting in lack of biodiversity, soil erosion, and water loss. furthermore, it covers the effect of affliction organisms on human overall healthiness and farm animals. info is supplied on how the non-native species invade new ecosystems and the next environmental results of those invading species. anywhere attainable, estimates at the fiscal affects of the invading species are incorporated.
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Extra info for Biological Invasions: Economic and Environmental Costs of Alien Plant,Animal,and Microbe Species
A large number of Australians are affected chronically by hay fever (allergic rhinitis) and chronically or acutely by asthma (allergic bronchitis) as a result of inhaling allergenic pollen produced mainly in spring by a wide range of alien plants. ), the olives (Olea europaea and O. 39 A few alien plants contain poisonous compounds, which if ingested may lead to serious illness and death. ), arum lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), and hemlock (Conium maculatum). While contact with leaves of oleander (Nerium oleander) may cause eczema, ingestion of its leaves or flowers can cause death, because the toxic glucosides it contains have a digitalis-like action in humans.
Allergy associated with Paterson’s curse, Med. J. , 2, 87–88, 1983. 38. T. , Noxious Weeds of Australia, Inkata Press, Melbourne, 1992. 39. A. , Perth, 1956. 40. , Poisonous Plants of Australia, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1974. 41. , Effects of Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) on animal health and production, Pl. Prot. , 12, 91–92, 1997. 42. , Government Printer, Wellington, 1977. 50 © 2002 by CRC Press LLC 25 26 Biological Invasions Abstract At least 80 species of non-indigenous vertebrates have established wild populations in Australia, and more than 30 of these species have become pests.
Exotic animals can also act as reservoirs and vectors for diseases affecting native wildlife, domestic stock, and humans. There are also potential losses that would occur if new diseases entered Australia and became established in feral animal populations. 1 Introduced exotic vertebrate species that have established widespread populations on mainland Australia and their pest status. b Serious pest Mammals Birds Amphibian Freshwater fish a European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus Feral goat Capra hircus Feral pig Sus scrofa European red fox Vulpes vulpes Dingo/feral dog Canis familiaris Feral cat Felis catus House mouse Mus domesticus European starling Sturnus vulgaris Indian myna Acridotheres tristis Cane toad Bufo marinus European carp Cyprinus carpio Mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus Moderate pest Minor or non-pest Feral horse Equus caballus Feral donkey Equus asinus Feral buffalo Bubalus bubalis Feral camel Camelus dromedarius Feral cattle Bos taurus Black rat Rattus rattus European brown hare Lepus capensis Brown rat Rattus norvegicus Mallard Anas platyrhynchos Rock dove (feral pigeon) Columba livia Spotted turtledove Streptopelia chinensis Blackbird Turdus merula House sparrow Passer domesticus European goldfinch Carduelis carduelis Senegal turtledove Streptopelia senegalensis — Cattle egret Ardeola ibis Skylark Alauda arvensis Tree sparrow Passer montanus Nutmeg manikin Lonchura punctulata Greenfinch Carduelis chloris Weather loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus Tench Tinca tinca Redfin perch Perca fluviatilis Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Brown trout Salmo trutta — Goldfish Carasius auratus Guppy Poecilia reticulata Localised mainland populations.