By Alexander Matthias Holschneider, John M. Hutson
This completely revised moment version succinctly introduces the physics and serve as of magnetic resonance imaging. All vital and clinically proper points are awarded in a essentially based demeanour. The emphasis is on useful info together with the newest developments and advancements which are suitable for MRI within the scientific environment. the hole chapters describe the underlying actual ideas of the MR test and the elemental pulse sequences normal in medical MRI. different chapters are devoted to extra complicated strategies akin to parallel imaging and cardiovascular MR imaging. The publication is rounded out by means of chapters on MR distinction media, artifacts, high-field imaging, and security matters. an intensive word list bargains swift entry to an important MRI terminology. The e-book is meant for readers searching for a simple to appreciate and concise creation to this interesting but a little bit complicated imaging modality first and foremost in their MRI education.
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Additional resources for Holschneider Anorectal Malformations in Children
Pediatr Surg Int 21:264–269 94. Littre A (1710) Diverses observations anatomatiques. Paris Histoire de l’Academie Royale de Science, pp 36–37 95. Liu MI, Hutson JH (2000) Cloacal and urogenital malformations in adriamycin-exposed rat fetuses. BJU Int 86:107–112 96. Long FL, et al (1996) Tethered cord and associated vertebral anomalies in children and infants with imperforate anus: evaluation with MR imaging and plain radiography. Radiology 200:377–382 97. Lund DP, Hendren WH (2001) Cloacal exstrophy: a 25year experience with 50 cases.
However it is important to inform these families about the possibility of having a baby affected with PHS in a more 21 22 Giuseppe Martucciello severe or even milder form than that of the other individuals in the family. Regarding sporadic cases, in whom the disease tends to occur in a severe form and frequently with a higher mortality rate and reduced reproductive fitness, the recurrence risk can be that of the general population. However, the absence of cases with gonadal or germinal mosaicism does not mean that it can not exist, so the family should be informed about the substantial risk of recurrence .
However, in a few cases the anomaly may segregate from an affected parent. Mosaicism can be a frequent finding in blood samples of the affected index case and of his family members. This may draw attention to considerable intrafamilial variability of the phenotypic expression, and the potential recurrence risk for patients with a normal karyotype . 4 Genetic Syndromes Associated with ARM Seven major syndromes have been considered in this chapter: Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS), FG syndrome, Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS), VACTERL (vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, and limb anomalies) Association (VATER), sirenomelia, caudal regression syndrome (CRS) and Currarino syndrome.