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By Karl-Otto Apel

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82 Thus Winch, in discussing a Behaviorist interpretation of Wittgenstein as well as Max Weber's concept of understanding, actually comes to a formulation of the foundations of a philosophical hermeneutics. Winch concludes from his critical evaluation of M. Weber or rather of the traditional German concept of "understanding sociology" and "understanding psychology" that, as a presupposition of understanding, participation in a language game and in the "customs" and "institutions" connected with it must replace all theories of empathy, a concept which traditionally had been connected with the primacy of the individual's inner experiences.

I suppose everyone will admit - after the 'adventurous' attempt of early Analytic Philosophy to solve all problems of 74 We have contrasted here for the sake of clarity Winch's and Dilthey's terminologies and viewpoints; cf. for this also Winch's discussion of M. Weber, op. , p. 111. 75 Op. , p. 100. 76 Op. , p. 123. 77 Op. , p. 126. ~ken as an arbitrary kind of empathy, because it always follows rules. g. by a philosopher) and is at the same time a foundation of understanding. The actual starting point of Winch's Idea of a Social Science is Wittgenstein's discussion - fascinating no matter how obscure in respect to its conclusions - of "what it means to follow a rule".

E. Stenius, op. , and A. Maslow, A Study in Wittgenstein's Tractatus, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1961, pp. XIII f. 72 Cf. E. K. Specht, Die sprachphilosophischen und ontologischen Grundlagen im Spiitwerk Ludwig Wittgensteins, KOln 1963. 73 Cf. the famous sentence from Dilthey's preface to his Einleitung in die Geisteswissenschaften (Collected Works, I, p. XIII): "In the veins of the knowing subject, as constructed by Locke, Hume and Kant, no real blood is flowing, but the diluted juice of 'reason' as the mere activity of thinking".

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