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By Philoponus

It is a post-Aristotelian Greek philosophical textual content, written at an important second within the defeat of paganism via Christianity, advert 529, while the Emperor Justinian closed the pagan Neoplatonist college in Athens. Philoponus in Alexandria used to be an excellent Christian thinker, steeped in Neoplatanism, who became the pagans' principles opposed to them. right here he assaults the main religious of the sooner Athenian pagan philosophers, Proclus, protecting the distinctively Christian view that the universe had a starting opposed to Proclus' eighteen arguments on the contrary, that are mentioned in eighteen chapters. Chapters 1-5 are translated during this quantity.

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Further, if the Forms are relatives, and if relatives do not have their own existence, but have their being in other [things], as was 15 20 33,1 5 10 15 20 25 34,1 5 10 15 38 20 25 35,1 5 10 15 20 25 36,1 5 10 Chapter 2, Sections 3-4 shown in the Categories122 – for they are either in substance, as [in the case of] father and son, [or] master and slave (for the relation between these occurs in the substance man), or in quantity, as [in the cases of] many and few, greater and lesser [and] double and half, or in quality, as [in the cases of] whiter and sweeter and wiser, or in one of the other [categories] – it is, one assumes, necessary for the Forms, if they are indeed relatives, to exist in some other subject.

Now, should some be infinite and others finite [5], [any] account will be arbitrary and full of caprice. For on what authority is it possible to say that this power of God is infinite and that finite? For the divine will be in part eternal and in part temporal and the very power of God that brings time into existence will be temporal. And how will he maintain things for ever if it is not infinite? For one presumably in every case maintains what one creates by the [same] power with which one creates it.

So the more superior are the things whose existence one hypothesises to those that [currently] exist, so much the more, since they [nevertheless] fall short of the inconceivable power of God, would one still leave the same problem [unsolved]. And so it is necessary that the quality of created things too be circumscribed, just as their number is. So if the fact that more or better things are not created has its cause in the nature of created things and this in no way detracts from the power or goodness of God, then we, by hypothesising consistently with this that the world is not ungenerated, neither accuse the creator of weakness nor [claim] that he does not always wish to bring good things into existence, but find the cause in the nature of created things.

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