By M. Houngnikpo
Matt Houngnikpo examines how household clash, monetary stagnation, political instability, poverty and underdevelopment have plagued Africa for many years. He argues reversal of the political, fiscal and social plight of Africa lies in higher rules, strong governance, and, extra importantly, a brand new form of African chief and citizen.
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Extra info for Africa’s Elusive Quest for Development
Another example of how advanced some African civilizations were resides in the Dogon cosmogony in Mali. Modern astronomy and astrology pay tribute to the important role of the sun, the moon, and the stars in Dogon universe. In fact, these natural elements allowed Africans to navigate to China and India in search of spices that ended up in Europe through Ottoman merchants. Renowned scientists and researchers have uncovered facts that belie the notion that Africa was a jungle filled with primates, bound to extinction if it were not for European civilization.
23 42 AFRICA’S ELUSIVE QUEST FOR DEVELOPMENT In all fairness, the African masses deserve a great deal of credit for their impact on the democratic transition in Africa. 24 Often equated with the emergence of new patterns of political participation outside of formal state structures and one-party systems,25 civil society is a necessary condition for the persistence of modern democracies. 26 Most scholars saw civil society in Africans’ successful struggle against despotic rulers, repressive regimes, and governments that violated both their individual and their collective rights.
28 While an inactive civil society leads to unresponsive states, a politically self-conscious civil society forces the state to remain within its boundaries. 30 However, one needs to measure praise of civil society so as not to overemphasize its role, particularly at the expense of other key actors.