Download Absolutely Small: How Quantum Theory Explains Our Everyday by Michael D. Fayer PDF

By Michael D. Fayer

Physics is a fancy, even daunting subject, however it can also be deeply gratifying even exciting. And liberated from its mathematical underpinnings, physics all at once turns into available to a person with the interest and mind's eye to discover its attractiveness. technology with no math? It's now not that strange. for instance, we will be able to comprehend the idea that of gravity with out fixing a unmarried equation. So for all those that could have meditated what makes blueberries blue and strawberries pink; in case you have puzzled if sound fairly travels in waves; and why mild behaves so another way from the other phenomenon within the universe, it's all a question of quantum physics. Absolutely Small provides (and demystifies) the area of quantum technological know-how like no e-book ahead of. It explores clinical innovations from debris of sunshine, to chance, to states of subject, to what makes greenhouse gases undesirable in substantial intensity, yet utilizing examples from the standard international. difficult with no being intimidating, available yet now not condescending, Absolutely Small develops the reader's instinct for the very nature of items at their most simple and interesting degrees.

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5), Bd. 4). 90) 44 1. Klassische Statistische Physik abgekürzt wird, die Dimension Energie. 71) für die Entropie sorgt dafür, dass T die Einheit (Celsius-, Kelvin-)Grad erhält. 71) für die statistische Entropie benutzt. 71) äquivalent sind. Der Beweisgang ist ganz ähnlich dem, mit dem wir die Additivität der Entropie nachgewiesen haben. 48) in Scheiben der Dicke Δ zerlegen und abschätzen: ϕN (E, V) ≤ n0 ΓN (E, V) . Die oberste Schicht ist ΓN (E, V), die das größte Volumen enthält. n0 ist die Zahl der Scheiben.

71) mit der thermodynamischen Entropie identifiziert werden kann, sind zwei wesentliche Aussagen zu kontrollieren: 1. S ist extensiv (additiv) (Abschn. 3, Bd. 4), 2. S erfüllt den zweiten Hauptsatz der Thermodynamik: Bei allen in einem isolierten System noch ablaufenden (irreversiblen) Prozessen nimmt die Entropie nicht ab ( dS ≥ 0, Abschn. 1, Bd. 4)! Auf Punkt 2 werden wir im nächsten Kapitel eingehen. Hier wollen wir uns zunächst mit der Additivität bzw. 71) befassen. Betrachten wir zunächst zwei isolierte Systeme, die jedes für sich eine mikrokanonische Gesamtheit definieren: E1 < H1 (q, p) < E1 + Δ1 , E2 < H2 (q, p) < E2 + Δ2 .

52) einsetzen: F ≈ α D(E) dfE H(q,p)=E F(q, p) . 56) Die Mittelung geschieht in dieser Version über ein Flächenintegral. 52), kann in manchen Fällen aber bequemer in der Anwendung sein. Eine spezielle Phasenraumobservable ist die Hamilton-Funktion. 56): H ≈E. 57) Den Mittelwert H werden wir im nächsten Kapitel thermodynamisch mit der inneren Energie U des betreffenden Systems identifizieren. Wir haben nunmehr die wichtigsten Grundbegriffe der Klassischen Statistischen Physik zusammengetragen. Der nächste Programmpunkt besteht darin, den Anschluss an die Gleichgewichtsthermodynamik herzustellen.

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