By Nicole Nau
Latgalian is a neighborhood language of Latvia in vital Europe, on a regular basis utilized by an envisioned variety of 150,000 audio system. Genetically it belongs to the jap Baltic department of Indo-European. whereas its shut courting to Latvian is obvious in uncomplicated vocabulary and inflectional morphemes, there also are major transformations within the phonology, morphology and syntax of the 2 languages, because of divergent improvement throughout the seventeenth - nineteenth c., whilst Latgalia was once politically and culturally separated from different Latvian territories. moreover, touch with Slavic languages (Polish, Belarusian, Russian) has performed a tremendous position within the heritage of Latgalian.
Typologically salient gains of Latgalian comprise morphophonological concord with an competition of again vs. entrance vowels and delicate (palatalized or alveolar) vs. tough consonants, a wide stock of non-finite verb kinds, genitive vs. accusative marking of direct items, dative marking of fundamental center arguments in numerous buildings, using non-finite predicates in represented speech, and the lifestyles of a unique logophoric pronoun bearing on the speaker of a stated discourse.
Nicole Nau is professor of Baltic languages and linguistics at Adam Mickiewicz college in Pozna?, Poland. She is usually the writer of LWM 217: Latvian.
ISBN 9783862880553. Languages of the World/Materials 482. 120pp. 2011
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Additional info for A short grammar of Latgalian
PL over posvajdeib-uom pa vys-u Latgo/-u? SG 'Shouldn't we demonstrate and smash windows at our local governments all koliaidz pasceiskis, kur bejs. SG Some linguists hold that the use of the debitive is not characteristic for Latgalian but is due to influence from Latvian (Cibu[s & Leikuma 2003: 83). 2) are more frequent for the expression of necessive modality than the debitive. However, the debitive is not rare in such texts, and it is surely not a recent innovation. ' (Ko) In modern texts the oblique is also used to mark reported speech, but it is not frequent.
There are several largely synonymous connectors, construction contains a notion of emphasis. It is often found with more than two coordinants, and for the last coordinant another connective may be used. SG 'They lived happily, they had food as well as clothes' (Ko) distributed according to regional and individual preferences: 'and' i, un, da, da i 'but' 'or' a, bet, da, no voi, ci; aba (in older texts) In traditional texts we find two further means for the coordination of words and phrases: juxtaposition and the use of the preposition ar ' with'.
Direct objects are marked accusative or genitive. 6). Other core arguments found with verbs with a nominative subject are noun phrases in the dative, noun phrases in the locative, prepositional phrases, infinitival and finite complement · clauses. The least marked word-order in transitive clauses is SVO. The choice between accusative and genitive for direct objects depends on a variety of factors and needs further investigation. Here, only some general observations will be made and typical examples will be given.