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By F. Max Muller

Bankruptcy I. THE ALPHABET. § I. SANSKRIT is correctly written with the Devanragari alphabet; however the Bengali, Grantha, Telugu, and different smooth Indian alphabets are quite often hired for writing Sanskrit of their respective provinces. Note-Devanagar( potential the Nagar( of the gods, or, most likely, of the Br~hmBJl9. A extra eurrent form of writing, utilized by Hindus in 1111 universal transaclions the place Hindi is the language hired, is named easily Nagart. Why the alphabet must have been known as lI'dgart, is unknown. If derived from nagara, eity, it might probably suggest the o.rt of writing as first practised in towns. (PaJ]. IV. 2, 128.) No authority has but been adduced from any historic writer for the employment of the notice Devan/igart. within the Lalita-vis/ora (a lifetime of Buddha, translated from Sanskrit into chinese language seventy six A. D.), the place an inventory of alphabets is given, the DevanQgart isn't pointed out, until it's meant through the Deva alphabet. (See background of historical Sanskrit Literature, p. 518.) A

Table of Contents

TAB LEO F CON TEN T S; web page; bankruptcy I-THE ALPHABET; The DcvlLllagari letters 2; § r The Devanagari alphabet three; 2 course of Sanskrit alphabet four; three how one can write the letters four; four Sounds represented via the Devallagari; alphabet four; five variety of letters five; 6 The letter!i five; ~ Jihv/lmOHya aud U padhmaniya five; eight indicators of nasals and their alternative; five; nine the 3 nasal semivowels 6; 10: Consonants with no corresponding; nasals 6; I I Auusvara sooner than $, take a seat, eight, h 6 * I 2 Names ofletters 7; thirteen Vowel indicators, preliminary, medial, aud; ultimate 7; 14 Consonants by way of vowels 7; IS: Virama 7; sixteen mix of consonants 7; 17; The signal fOI' r eight; 18 The Virama used as a stop-gap eight; 19: The indicators for a pause eight; 20 The Avagraha record of compound; consonants eight; 2 I Numerical figures nine; 2"' principles of pronunciation 10; bankruptcy n-RULES OF SA~DHI; § 2 three' item and use of Sandhi eleven; 24 contrast among exterior; and inner Sandhi eleven; 25, Cla

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N. 1995. Social Change in Modern India. New Delhi: Orient Longman. Valmiki, Omprakash. 2008. Joothan: An Untouchable’s Life. ) Arun Prabha Mukherjee. New York: Columbia University Press. Zelliot, Eleanor. 1992. From Untouchable to Dalit: Essays on the Ambedkar Movement. New Delhi: Manohar Publications. 17 1 Families of Deities To enter the Hindu pantheon of gods, goddesses, and other p ­ owerful beings for the first time is much like an Indian bride marrying into a large extended family and being introduced to the relatives.

London: Thames & Hudson. 45 2 Oral and Visual Narratives and Theologies Hindus rarely learn or know religious narratives, such as those related in the previous chapter, by picking up a book and reading the stories privately, although there are hundreds of religious texts available in written form. Rather, Hinduism is primarily an oral and visual tradition; Hindus know their stories primarily by hearing them performed and seeing them through a wide range of visual mediums. Religious narratives are sung or recited by performers in village squares and temple courtyards or dramatically enacted at particular festivals; they are danced in classical Indian dance and dramatic forms such as Bharatanatyam, Kuchipudi, and Kathakali; they are painted on scrolls and carved onto the outside of temple towers, walls, and gateways.

His name Murali (he who plays the flute) conjures the image of the god as a cowherd who played his flute in the jungle outside the village, the melodious sound of which drew the village women (gopis) out to dance with him. Krishna as Kamsantaka (slayer of the demon Kamsa) refers to Krishna’s defeat of the world‐threatening demon. The common ritual practice of recitation of the 1,000 or 1,008 names (namajapa; sahasranama) for a particular deity can thus be understood as an oral litany of his/her narratives, visual ­representations, and theologies.

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