By Heath, Jeffrey
Jamsay is the largest-population language between a few twenty Dogon languages in Mali, West Africa. this can be the 1st finished grammar of any Dogon language, together with an entire tonology. The language is verb-final, with topic contract at the verb and with out different case-marking. Its such a lot awesome characteristic is the morphosyntactically brought on use of stem-wide tone-contour overlays on nouns, verbs, and adjectives. All stems have a lexical tone contour similar to H[igh], L[ow]-H, HL, or LHL with at the very least one H-tone. An examination of tone overlay is tone-dropping to stem-wide all-L. this can be used for Perfective verbs (in the presence of a focalized constituent), and for a noun or adjective sooner than an adjective. it's also used to mark the pinnacle NP in a relative clause (the head NP isn't extracted, so this can be the one direct indication of head NP status). The verb in a relative clause is morphologically a participle, agreeing with the pinnacle NP in humanness and quantity, instead of with the topic. ""Intonation"" is used grammatically. for instance, NP conjunction 'X and Y' is expressed as X Y, with out a conjunction, yet with ""dying-quail"" intonation on either conjuncts.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Jamsay (Mouton Grammar Library)
37) quality short-V ex. gloss long-V ex. gloss u o ç a E e i ‘trash heap’ ‘outside’ ‘be soft’ ‘calculate’ ‘copulate’ ‘pound grain’ ‘sniffle’ bu@˘du$ bo$˘mo@yç$˘rç@wa@˘tE$ sE@˘rE$ pe@˘ju@ si@˘Ne$ du@du@ru@m bo@mo@ yç$rç@ja@tE@sE@rE@pe@je@si@ne) @- ‘money’ ‘be stupid’ ‘cook on fire’ ‘oath’ ‘witness’ ‘sheep’ ‘dark grey cow’ In medial position, long vowels are uncommon (and are not possible in verb stems). g. 4 Vowels 41 like du$-du@˘ru@ ‘gourd’ and pu$˘-pa@˘ ‘blacksmith’s bellows’, and a few loanwords (from Fulfulde) like la@yya@˘ru$ ‘Feast of the Ram’.
B. a), though sequencing is not completely rigid. b). c). (15) a. ’ o@˘-sa$-m give-Reslt-1SgS b. ’ c. ’ The above is somewhat idealized, since it does not consider focalization or topicalization. 1), some constituent preceding the verb functions as focus, whether or not it is overtly marked as such by Focus clitic y$. If the focus is a pronominal subject, it appears as an independent pronoun, with or without y$, and there is no subject pronominal on the verb. This focalized pronoun appears at or near the beginning of the clause (16).
It therefore takes place in the two paired direction terms du$-da@ƒa@ ‘east’ and tE$n-da@ƒa@ ‘west’, which compete with uncompounded du^˘ ‘east’ and tE&N ‘west’, and in ga$n-ka@ƒa$ ‘quandary’ (literally “between-squeeze”). In ka$-da$ƒa@ ‘peer group’, the segmentation (which positions ƒ as C2 in its morpheme) is supported by the synonym ku$˘<-da$ƒa@. However, spirantization does not take place in a$nsa$˘ra$-ga&˘< ‘cashew tree’ (lit. man-fig”), because the g of the compound final ga&˘< is recognizably stem-initial (cf.