By Jiang Li
In A Grammar of Guiqiong, Jiang Li describes the grammar of Guiqiong, a hitherto undocumented language spoken by means of alpine humans in Kangding county, China. Guiqiong has much to supply in its phonology, verbal and nominal morphology, syntax and thesaurus, distinguishing itself from the neighbouring Tibetan, chinese language, Qiangic and Loloish languages. The newly chanced on positive factors of Guiqiong comprise breathy vs. modal voice, indefinite quantity, ablative, ergative, instrumental, dative and genitive case markers, subject and emphatic markers, the diminutive suffixes, the pronominal and deictic structures, demonstratives and numerals, a wealthy shop of differentiated copular verbs expressing equationality, inchoative, animacy vs. inanimacy, based lifestyles and negation, verbal affixes indicating instructions, current demanding of skilled perceptions, gnomic annoying, perfective vs. imperfective point, modality and evidentiality.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Guìqióng: A Language of Sichuan
Ni ‘from’. ’ni gold mə’nɐ vegetable oil ’nɐ’i tomorrow ɛ’niɛn’niɛn cicada niɐnlo pupil of the eye ni’wu the younger, the smaller nɐ’wuŋ muntjac nɐ chicken; poultry; hide tʂini fish, shrimp, water-bound animals phɛini parent ʐinɛ foot of a mountain ni from The alveolar fricative /s/ is followed by the high level tone articulated in modal voice. ] The alveolar fricative /z/ is followed by the medial level tone in modal voice. zo he, she, it zibuzu get angry zi’nɐ leopard zukhɐ corner zɛzɛ point, tip The breathy voiced /z’/ is pronounced as [z] in the low falling tone.
The unvoiced retroflex affricate initials /tʂ/ and /tʂh/ are followed by the high level tone in modal voice. The voiced initial /dʐ/ is followed by the medial level tone in modal voice. The low falling tone follows the breathy voiced initial /dʐ’/. g. tɐ ‘tiger’, thɐ ‘the prohibitive marker’, dɐ ‘big’ and d’ɐχin ‘distant’. The unvoiced and unaspirated alveolar /t/ is followed by the high level tone in modal voice. ] ɕitəsɐŋ springtime tɐntə summer jɔtə autumn guɐntə winter tu poison The aspirated alveolar /th/ is also followed by the high level tone in modal voice.
Dzɔ dzo (offspring of a bull and a female yak), yak dzi blood; supper dzɐŋmu copper dzo᾽wu bucket The alveolar affricate in breathy voice is represented as /dz’/ and is followed by the low-falling tone. g. pɐ ‘hold’, phɐ ‘pig’, bɐ ‘develop’ and b’ɐ ‘burst’. The unvoiced and unaspirated bilabial plosive /p/ is followed by the high level tone in modal voice. pɐ hold pɐ̃ government official pɐŋ heat in fire ɐpu grandfather khɐpɐ mouth ʐipu hair ʂɐpɛi saliva ʨiuputsi (bigger) millet pu’ wu wild dog sɐnpu tree pɐɲi glacier, ice pɐpɐ skin, bark, peel gəpɛi sorghum dɛpɛi one person 46 CHAPTER 2 The aspirated voiceless bilabial plosive /ph/ is also followed by the high level tone in modal voice.