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By Philip Herdina

The version awarded during this quantity attracts jointly quite a few strands of study – moment language acquisition concept, bilingualism study, dynamic structures idea – to strengthen a unique method of this hard topic. Its major concentration lies at the psycholinguistic dynamics of multilingualism, the approaches of swap in time affecting or extra language platforms.

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For obvious reasons the interference argument as an explanation of the differences in achievement levels is not applicable to the dissociative concept. The associative hypothesis on the other hand discards the idea of the separateness of both language systems and assumes an asymmetrical relationship between LS1 and LS2. The parameters are transferred from LS1 to LS2 and then adapted accordingly. We can assume that UG is not taken to be effective or accessible in LS2. This does have the (strictly limited) advantage that partial attainment is no longer the theoretical problem it was for UG.

As defined by Selinker and others, interlanguage is supposed to reflect the hypothesis that learner systems are not merely transitional phases but represent systems in their own right, which obey their own rules. The assumed autonomy of learner systems appears to provide a solution to the problem of limited accessibility and partial achievement. If interlanguage is an autonomous system which is neither reducible to LS1 nor LS2, then the problem of the accessibility of UG is not as pressing as it was, as we can assume that interlanguage is not a natural language (see also Adjemian, 1976) and therefore UG principles do not have to apply to it.

In fact a process termed ‘backlash interference’ (Jakobovits, 1969) has been observed, which means that transfer is at least potentially bidirectional. ’ (And yet it is not difficult to notice that in a long-term contact situation […] the first language can be considerably influenced by the second one and this on various levels […] Translation by UJ). More recent research by Franceschini (1999) has shown that the influence between two language systems does not necessarily have to occur from the dominant language but also from the minority on the majority language, in this case from Italian on Swiss-German.

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